- Chair and Professor at Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine
Title: Orofacial Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Tissue Regeneration and Immune Therapies
Abstract: The orofacial region contains multiple type mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including bone marrow MSCs, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), Stem cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED), Stem Cells from root Apical Papilla (SCAP), and Gingival Stem/Progenitor Cells (GMSC). All these orofacial MSCs show elevated proliferation rate and population double numbers when compared to long bone marrow-derived MSCs. DPSCs and SHED are capable of regenerating dentin and pulp tissues in vivo. PDLSCs can be successfully used to treat periodontitis with regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament and Sharpey’s fibers in swine and humans. Implantation of bone marrow MSCs can regenerate jaw bone to support dental implants. Moreover, orofacial stem cells were capable of regenerating bio-root in swine to restore tooth function.
In addition to their ability to differentiate into various kinds of cell types, orofacial MSCs possess immunomodulatory properties capable of interplaying with immune cells, such as T cells and reducing inflammatory cytokine production. These immunosuppresion functions make orofacial MSCs of great interest for clinical applications in treating a variety of human diseases such as SLE and osteoporosis by reconstructing the osteoblastic niche and restoring immune homeostasis.